5 steps of a literature review
Step one: Identify key terms
· These key terms will be used to search for literature
· There are several strategies for identifying key terms
· A researcher can create a working title, and select two to three key words. A working title also helps keep the researcher focused
· Posing a question and choosing two to three key words can help identify important terms
· Other authors will use key words, and researchers can use those also
· There are databases available which provide a catalog of terms that match a researchers topic
· Scanning a table of contents of education journals can help create key terms
Step two: Locate literature
· Literature can be located in library resources such as summaries, books, journal publications and electronic sources, and early stage literature
· Literature can also be found by consulting databases on the internet
· Not all literature posted on the internet is dependable, and some articles have not passed external reviews – so it is important to use libraries as well
· Academic libraries can be accessed by physically searching stacks, reviewing microfiche, or accessing computerized databases
· Primary and secondary sources are important to use in literature reviews. Primary sources present original literature, and secondary sources help determine the range of materials on a topic
· There are different types of literature available to researchers
o Lower standards, but ideas appear first in Early stage material (papers on websites, professional association newsletters, draft papers)
o Indexed publications (conference papers, dissertations, theses)
o Journal articles (referred, international, national)
o Books (studies and essays)
o Higher standards, and ideas appear 10+ years after initiation in Summaries (encyclopedias, handbooks)
Step three: Critically evaluate materials
· Materials are determined to be relevant or not
· Even though a study has been published, it may not be worthy of inclusion in a literature review
· Journal articles should be relied on “as much as possible”
· A priority system for evaluating materials has been designed by the author
o Refereed journal articles > nonrefereed journal articles > books > conference papers > dissertations > non-reviewed articles
· Research studies can be included
· Both qualitative and quantitative research studies are important to include
· Researchers should also ask if the literature is relevant by answering yes to the following questions
o Does the literature focus on the same topic?
o Does it examine the same individuals?
o Does it examine the same research problem?
o Is it available?
Step four: Organize the literature
· Obtain literature and take notes or create abstracts
· Literature can be organized into a visual rendering of the literature (literature map)
· Organizing literature involves photocopying and filing
· Researchers might quickly read it, take notes, and determine how it fits into the literature
· Note taking is an informal procedure where researchers identify the important ideas
· Note taking may involve a citation
· A systemic approach for summarizing is done by developing an abstract
· To abstract a quantitative research study a researcher identifies the research problem, questions/hypotheses, data collection, and results
· To abstract a qualitative research study a researcher identifies the research problem, questions, data collection procedure, and findings
Step five: Write the literature review
· The literature review will report summaries of the literature for inclusion in the research report
· It can be concluded by summarizing major themes and presenting reasons for a proposed study or importance of studying a research problem
· A researcher uses an appropriate style to write complete references
· A researcher also employs specific writing strategies
· Researchers can use a style manual to provide structure for citing references, labeling headings, and constructing tables and figures
· Levels of headings help create subdivisions in reviews
· A thematic review of literature identifies a theme through documenting literature
· A study-by-study review provides a summary of each study grouped under a theme
· The conclusion provides a rationale for the need for your study or the importance of the research problem
My identified problem is the lower grades, outcomes, and standards which exist in Northern community schools. Through evidence, I believe I will ascertain that this problem is a result of the disconnect between western-rooted curriculum and Indigenous traditional practices, and intergenerational trauma, in Northern Indigenous communities.
Trauma and Education
Bessel A. (2007). The developmental impact of childhood trauma. In L. J. Kirmayer, R. Lemelson & M. Barad (Eds.), Foundation for psychocultural conference (pp. 224–241). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Dombo, E. A., & Sabatino, C. A. (2019). Creating trauma-informed schools: a guide for school social workers and educators. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Elliott, D. (2005). Rauma-informed or trauma-denied: Principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(4).
Holmes, C., Levy, M., Smith, A., Pinne, S., & Neese, P. (2014). A Model for Creating a Supportive Trauma-Informed Culture for Children in Preschool Settings. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(6), 1650–1659. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9968-6
Ko, S. J., Ford, J. D., Kassam-Adams, N., Berkowitz, S. J., Wilson, C., Wong, M., … & Layne, C. M. (2008). Creating trauma-informed systems: Child welfare, education, first responders, health care, juvenile justice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(4), 396.
Maclvor, Madeleine 1995 Redefining Science Education for Aboriginal Students, pp. 73- 98 in
Marie Battiste and Jean Barman (Editors): First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Majer, M., Nater, U. M., Lin, J.-M. S., Capuron, L., & Reeves, W. C. (2010). Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study. BMC Neurology, 10(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-61 McCaskill, Don 1987 Revitalization of Indian Culture: Indian Cultural Survival Schools, pp. 153-179 in Jean Barman, Yvonne Hebert and Don McCaskill (Editors): Indian Education in Canada: Volume 2: The Challenge. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press
McInerney, M. (n.d.). Unlocking the Door to Learning: Trauma-Informed Classrooms &
Transformational Schools . Education Law Centre. Retrieved from https://www.elcpa.org/wp-
Mears, C. L. (2012). Reclaiming school in the aftermath of trauma: advice based on experience.
New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Zacarian, D., Alvarez-Ortis, L., & Haynes, J. (2017). Teaching to strengths: supporting students living with trauma, violence, and chronic stress. Alexandria, Virginia USA: ASCD.
Indigenous Education (Contemporary)
Ball, Jessica. (2005). ‘Early Childhood Care and Development Programs as Hook and Hub for
Intersectoral Service Delivery in First Nations Communities’. Journal of Aboriginal Health,
March 2005. pp 36-50. http://www.naho.ca/english/documents/
Kirkness, Vema J. (1992) First Nations and Schools: Triumphs and Struggles. Toronto: Canadian
Richards, John. (2008). Closing the Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Education Gaps. Backgrounder
116. Toronto, ON: CD Howe Institute. http://www.cdhowe.org/pdf/ Backgrounder_116.pdf
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998).
Pewewardy, C. (2003). Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Students. ERIC
Digests. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED482325.pdf
Indigenous Education (Historical)
Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2013). The intergenerational effects of Indian Residential Schools: Implications for the concept of historical trauma. Transcultural Psychiatry, 51(3), 320–338. doi: 10.1177/1363461513503380
Bougie, E., & Senécal, S. (2010). Registered Indian children’s school success and
intergenerational effects of Residential schooling in Canada. The International Indigenous Policy
Journal, 1(1). Retrieved from http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/iipj/vol1/iss1/5.
Government of Northwest Territories (Ed.). (n.d.). The Residential School System in Canada (2nd ed.). Government of Northwest Territories, Government of Nunavut, and the Legacy of Hope Foundation. Hamme, Linda 1996 American Indian Cultures and the Classroom. Journal ofAmerican Indian Education 35(2):21-36.
Archibald, Jo-ann (1995) Locally Developed Native Studies Curriculum: An Historical and
Philosophical Rationale, pp. 288-312 in Marie Battiste and Jean Barman (Editors): First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver: UBC Press
Assembly of First Nations (2008). Community Dialogues on First Nations Holistic Lifelong
Learning. Ottawa, ON: author. http://www.afneducation.ca/files/ AFNEDCD_EN_web.pdf
Battiste, Marie. (2002). Indigenous Knowledge and Pedagogy in First Nations Education –A
Literature Review with Recommendations. http://www.usask.ca/education/people/
Calliou, Sharilyn (1995) Peacekeeping Actions at Home: A Medicine Wheel Model for a Peacekeeping Pedagogy, pp. 47-72 in Marie Battiste and Jean Barman (Editors): First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Hamme, Linda (1996) American Indian Cultures and the Classroom. Journal of American Indian Education 35(2):21-36.
Hampton, Eber 1995 Towards a Redefinition of Indian Education, pp. 5-46 in Marie Battiste and
Jean Barman (Editors): First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver:
McCaskill, Don (1987) Revitalization of Indian Culture: Indian Cultural Survival Schools, pp.
153-179 in Jean Barman, Yvonne Hebert and Don McCaskill (Editors): Indian Education in
Canada: Volume 2: The Challenge. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
More, Arthur J (1987). Native Indian Learning Styles: A Review for Researchers and Teachers.
Journal ofAmerican Indian Education 27(1):17-29.
Bellamy, S. and Hard, C (2015). Understanding Depression in Aboriginal Communities and Families. Prince George ,BC: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Biswas-Dienera, R., Kashdan, T. B., & Gurpal, M. (2011). A dynamic approach to psychological strength development and intervention. Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106–118.
Braveheart-Jordan, M. (1995). So she may walk in balance: Integrating the impact of historical trauma in the treatment of Native American Indian women. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/ 1995-98033-009
Brown-Rice, K. (2013). Examining the Theory of Historical Trauma Among Native Americans. The Professional Counselor, 3(3), 117–130. doi: 10.15241/kbr.3.3.117 Calliou, Sharilyn 1995
Evans-Campbell T. (2008) Historical trauma in American Indian/Native Alaska communities: A multilevel framework for exploring impacts on individuals, families, and communities. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23(3): 316–338.
First Nations Centre (2004). First Nations and Inuit regional health surveys, 1997: A synthesis of the national and regional reports. Ottawa, ON.
Gagné, M.-A. (1998). The Role of Dependency and Colonialism in Generating Trauma in First Nations Citizens. International Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, 355–372. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-5567-1_23
O’Donnell, V. and H Tait (2003). Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2001 – Initial Findings: Wellbeing of the non-reserve Aboriginal population. Ontario, ON: Statistics Canada Catalogue no 89-589-XIE